Promoting Language as a Lifeline for Georgia’s Ethnic Azeris
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Temur Sukhashvili, an ethnic Georgian from Azerbaijan, knew what it’s like to be an outsider. So, when offered the chance to teach Georgian to ethnic Azeri schoolchildren in Georgia, he did not hesitate.

“Integration starts with language,” he comments.

Sukhashvili, 28, draws on his own experience as an ethnic minority in Azerbaijan to understand the needs of Georgia’s ethnic Azeris, and the challenges they face to become part of Georgian society.  

Helping them overcome these obstacles is part of the reason he decided to become a teacher, he says.

Born in northwest Azerbaijan’s Gakh region, Sukhashvili acquired a working knowledge of Azeri, but only spoke Georgian at home.

When it came time for him to go to university, Sukhashvili realized that his knowledge of Azeri was insufficient. The “quality of education” at the Georgian-language school he attended in his native village of Alibeyli was “not good enough,” he admits.  

Officially, Azerbaijan claims that most of its 9,900 ethnic Georgians speak Azeri fluently.

The reality, however, often differs.

Azerbaijan has no state programs that integrate ethnic Georgians within Azerbaijani society, and foster their knowledge of Azeri.


Ethnic Azeri students in the 5th grade in Marneuli’s School No. 2 study Georgian every day to be able to find a reasonably paying job or to attend university after graduation
The number of non-Georgian-language schools in Georgia has decreased over the past decade, but in Marneuli, Azeri remains the primary language
Learning Georgia’s state language particularly gives girls more options for the future. Kvemo Kartli, the region where Marneuli is located, has an “acute problem” with early marriages, according to the Georgian ombudsman’s office.
Differing levels of Georgian sometimes means that public schools may divide students according to ethnicity, Georgian media have reported. Teachers like Temur Sukhashvili hope to bridge that divide.

After gaining a master’s degree in philology from Caucasus University, Sukhashvili found his calling. He joined a Georgian government program that sends certified instructors to teach Georgian as a second language.

For the past four years, he has worked in public schools in Marneuli, a predominantly ethnic Azeri town in southern Georgia, not far from the border with Azerbaijan and Armenia, to try and help the area’s ethnic Azeris overcome their own language divide.  

At 6.3 percent of Georgia’s population of roughly 3.7 million, Azeris are the country’s largest ethnic minority. But, as for other ethnic minorities, their chances for finding a decent job or getting a higher education are slim without knowledge of Georgian.

To encourage knowledge of Georgian among the young, the town of Marneuli in 2016 declared an annual “Georgian Language Day” with events in which local children take part
Although Georgia translates standard textbooks into Azeri, Marneulil teachers have complained about the quality of the translations. Instead, many often rely on textbooks from Azerbaijan
To encourage Marneuli’s young to express themselves in Georgian, a government-run cultural center also offers intensive language training

For a country with two separatist conflicts, making sure that such communities feel part of Georgia is critical. Encouraged by the international community and Georgian civil society, the government has promoted not only Georgian-language instruction for minorities, but also launched a program to facilitate their enrollment in Georgian universities. Participants study Georgian for one year before completing their four-year degrees.

Assessments of the programs vary, but, for Sukhashvili, his pupils are the measurement of success.

As he walks into his third-grade class in one of Marneuli’s schools, they greet him in Georgian with a resounding “gamarjoba!” (“Hello!”) .

Outside of class, Sukhashvili plays soccer with his students or takes them on walks through the surrounding countryside. He believes that spending time together helps increase their interest in learning Georgian.

Although knowledge of Georgian can expand ethnic Azeris’ opportunities, adequate access to the Internet or national media remains a challenge in Kvemo Kartli , researchers have found.
A textbook that teaches Georgian as a second language asks students to identify the order of events in a fairy tale.
A girl in Temur Sukhashvili’s 5th-grade class reads a sentence she has written in Georgian to describe her dreams
She’s conjugating the verb “to have visions,” “to dream.”

“School is not just for passing exams,” he says.

“It would be good if Azerbaijan starts the same sort of program for its minorities,” he adds. The Azerbaijani government could not be reached for comment.

Nonetheless, he complains that many of his students are not passionate about learning Georgian.  

“After finishing school, they dream to go to Azerbaijan and continue their education there,” he says. “It’s a pity to see this.”

His own background has taught him the reason why.

“Regardless of ethnic origin,” he underlines, “a person should not feel like a stranger in his own country.”



Editor: Elizabeth Owen

A 2014 UN survey of 500 women in Kvemo Kartli found that 63.4 percent of the respondents could not read, write or understand Georgian. Less than half had finished high school.
Under former Georgian President Mikheil Saakashvili, instructing ethnic minorities in Georgian became part of an aggressive campaign to reform the entire country’s educational system
When he grows up, chances are strong that this ethnic Azeri boy will be working in agriculture if he stays in Marneuli
The government program that sent certified instructors like Azerbaijan-born Temur Sukhashvili to teach Georgian to ethnic minorities initially offered a monthly salary of 1,000 laris (now about $411) as an incentive
An Azeri student’s Georgian-language exercise book records a wolf’s conversation with a polar bear who came to “a warm country
With Russian no longer a lingua franca, a working knowledge of Georgian has become essential for these young ethnic Azeris in Marneuli. Temur Sukhashvili, an ethnic Georgian from Azerbaijan, says that teaching them “makes me happy.”
Chai Khana
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